|n.||1.||A process or condition of acting or moving, as opposed to rest; the doing of something; exertion of power or force, as when one body acts on another; the effect of power exerted on one body by another; agency; activity; operation; |
|2.||An act; a thing done; a deed; an enterprise. |
|3.||The event or connected series of events, either real or imaginary, forming the subject of a play, poem, or other composition; the unfolding of the drama of events.|
|5.||(Mech.) Effective motion; also, mechanism; |
|6.||(Physiol.) Any one of the active processes going on in an organism; the performance of a function; |
|7.||(Orat.) Gesticulation; the external deportment of the speaker, or the suiting of his attitude, voice, gestures, and countenance, to the subject, or to the feelings.|
|8.||(Paint. & Sculp.) The attitude or position of the several parts of the body as expressive of the sentiment or passion depicted.|
|9.||(Law) A suit or process, by which a demand is made of a right in a court of justice; in a broad sense, a judicial proceeding for the enforcement or protection of a right, the redress or prevention of a wrong, or the punishment of a public offense.|
|10.||(Com.) A share in the capital stock of a joint-stock company, or in the public funds; hence, in the plural, equivalent to stocks.|
|11.||An engagement between troops in war, whether on land or water; a battle; a fight; |
|12.||(Music) The mechanical contrivance by means of which the impulse of the player's finger is transmitted to the strings of a pianoforte or to the valve of an organ pipe.|
|Noun||1.||action - something done (usually as opposed to something said); "there were stories of murders and other unnatural actions"|
|2.||action - the state of being active; "his sphere of activity"; "he is out of action"|
|3.||action - a judicial proceeding brought by one party against another; one party prosecutes another for a wrong done or for protection of a right or for prevention of a wrong|
|4.||action - an act by a government body or supranational organization; "recent federal action undermined the segregationist position"; "the United Nations must have the power to propose and organize action without being hobbled by irrelevant issues"; "the Union action of emancipating Southern slaves"|
|5.||action - a military engagement; "he saw action in Korea"|
Synonyms: military action
|6.||action - a process existing in or produced by nature (rather than by the intent of human beings); "the action of natural forces"; "volcanic activity"|
|7.||action - the series of events that form a plot; "his novels always have a lot of action"|
|8.||action - the operating part that transmits power to a mechanism; "the piano had a very stiff action"|
Synonyms: action mechanism
|9.||action - the trait of being active and energetic and forceful; "a man of action"|
|10.||action - the most important or interesting work or activity in a specific area or field; "the action is no longer in technology stocks but in municipal bonds"; "gawkers always try to get as close to the action as possible"|
|Verb||1.||action - institute legal proceedings against; file a suit against; "He was warned that the district attorney would process him"; "She actioned the company for discrimination"|
|2.||action - put in effect; "carry out a task"; "execute the decision of the people"; "He actioned the operation"|
ACTION. Conduct, behaviour, something done. Nomen actionis latissime patere
vulgo notum est ac comprehenders omnem omnino viventis operationem quae
passioni opponitur. Vinnius, Com. lib. 4, tit. 6. De actionibus.
2. Human actions have been divided into necessary actions, or those over which man has no control; and into free actions, or such as he can control at his pleasure. As man is responsible only when he exerts his will, it is clear lie can be punished only for the latter.
3. Actions are also divided into positives and negative the former is called an act of commission the latter is the omission of something which ought to be done, and is called an act of omission. A man may be responsible as well for acts of omission, as for acts of commission.
4. Actions are voluntary and involuntary. The former are performed freely and without constraint - the latter are performed not by choice, against one's will or in a manner independent of the will. In general a man is not responsible for his involuntary actions. Yet it has been ruled that if a lunatic hurt a man, he shall be answerable in trespass, although, if he kill a man, it is not felony. See Hob. Rep. 134; Popham, 162; Pam. N. P. 68. See also Duress; Will.
ACTION, in practice. Actio nihil aliud est, quam jus persequendi in judicio
quod sibi debetur. Just. Inst. Lib. 4, tit. 6; Vinnius, Com. Actions are
divided into criminal and civil. Bac. Abr. Actions, A.
2.-1. A criminal action is a prosecution in a court of justice in the name of the government, against one or more individuals accused of a crime. See 1 Chitly's Cr. Law.
3.-2. A civil action is a legal demand of one's right, or it is the form given by law for the recovery of that which is due. Co. Litt. 285; 3 Bl. Com. 116; 9 Bouv. Inst. n. 2639; Domat. Supp. des Lois Civiles, liv. 4, tit. 1, No. 1; Poth. Introd. generale aux Coutumes, 109; 1 Sell. Pr. Introd. s. 4, p. 73. Ersk. Princ. of Scot. Law, B. 41 t. 1. Sec. 1. Till judgment the writ is properly called an action, but not after, and therefore, a release of all actions is regularly no bar of all execution. Co. Litt. 289 a; Roll. Ab. 291. They are real, personal and mixed. An action is real or personal, according as realty or personalty is recovered; not according to the nature of the defence. Willes' Rep. 134.
4.-1. Real actions are those brought for the specific recovery of lands, tenements, or hereditaments. Steph. Pl. 3. They are either procedural, when the demandant seeks to recover the property; or possessory when he endeavors to obtain the possession. Finch's Law, 257, 8. See Bac. Abr. Actions, A, contra. Real Actions are, 1st. Writs of right; 2dly, Writs of entry, which lie in the per, the per et cui, or the post, upon disseisin, intrusion, or alienation. 3dly. Writs ancestral possessory, as Mort d' ancester, aid, vbesaiel[?], cosinage, or Nuper obiit. Com. Dig. Actions, D 2. By these actions formerly all disputes concerning real estate, were decided; but now they are pretty generally laid aside in practice, upon account of the great nicety required in their management, and the inconvenient length of their process; a much more expeditious, method of trying titles being since introduced by other actions, personal and mixed. 3 Bl. Com. 118. See Booth on Real Actions.
5.-2. Personal actions are those brought for the specific recovery of goods and chattels; or for damages or other redress for breach of contract, or other injuries, of whatever description; the specific recovery of lands, tenements, and hereditaments only excepted. Steph. Pl. 3; Com. Dig. Actions, D 3; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2641. Personal actions arise either upon contracts, or for wrongs independently of contracts. The former are account, assumpsit, covenant, debt, and detinue; see these words. In Connecticut and Vermont there is, an action used which is peculiar to those states, called the action of book debt. 2 Swift's Syst. Ch. 15. The actions for wrongs, injuries, or torts, are trespass on the case, replevin, trespass, trover. See these words, and see Actio personalis moritur cum persona.
6.-3. Mixed actions are such as appertain, in some degree, to both the former classes, and, therefore, are properly reducible to neither of them, being brought for the specific recovery of lands, tenements, or hereditaments, and for damages for injury sustained in respect of such property. Steph. Pl. 3; Co. Litt. 284, b; Com. Dig. Actions, D 4. Every mixed action, properly so called, is also a real action. The action of ejectment is a personal action, and formerly, a count for an assault and battery might be joined with a count for the recovery of a term of Years in land.
7. Actions are also divided into those which are local and such as are transitory.
1. A local action is one in which the venue must still be laid in the county, in which the cause of action actually arose. The locality of actions is founded in some cases, on common law principles, in others on the statute law.
8. Of those which continue local, by the common law, are, 1st, all actions in which the subject or thing to be recovered is in its nature local. Of this class are real actions, actions of waste, when brought on the statute of Gloucester, (6 Edw. I.) to recover with the damages, the locus in quo or place wasted; and actions of ejectment. Bac. Abr. Actions Local, &c. A, a; Com. Dig. Actions, N 1; 7 Co. 2 b; 2 Bl. Rep. 1070. All these are local, because they are brought to recover the seisin or possession of lands or tenements, which are local subjects.
9.-2dly. Various actions which do not seek the direct recovery of lands or tenements, are also local, by the common law; because they arise out of some local subject, or the violation of some local right or interest.
ACTION, PROHIBITORY, civil law. An action instituted to avoid a sale on account of some Vice or defect in the thing sold which readers it either absolutely useless, or its use so inconvenient and, imperfect, that it must be, supposed the buyer would not have purchased it, had he known of the vice. Civ. Code of Louis. art. 2496.accomplished fact, accomplishment, act, acta, actions, activeness, activism, acts, ad hoc measure, address, adventure, aerial combat, affectation, affray, agency, air, amphibious operations, anagnorisis, angle, answer, architectonics, architecture, argument, armored combat, artifice, atmosphere, automatic control, award, background, ball, battle royal, bearing, behavior pattern, behavioral norm, behavioral science, big time, blow, brush, bullfight, business, carriage, cascade control, case, catastrophe, cause, cause in court, characterization, clash, clash of arms, clockworks, cockfight, color, combat, combined operations, complication, comportment, condemnation, conduct, conflict, consideration, continuity, contrivance, control action, countermove, coup, course of action, culture pattern, custom, dealings, decision, decree, deliverance, demarche, demeanor, denouement, deportment, design, determination, development, device, diagnosis, dictum, direction, discharge, dodge, dogfight, doing, doings, doom, drive train, driving, dry run, effect, effectiveness, effectuation, effort, electronic control, embroilment, encounter, endeavor, energy, engagement, enterprise, episode, exchange of blows, execution, exercise, exertion, expedient, fable, fait accompli, falling action, feedback control, fight, fighting, finding, fire fight, fluid operations, folkway, force, fray, fulfillment, fun, fun and games, function, functioning, funmaking, game, gear, gest, gestures, gimmick, go, goings-on, good time, great fun, ground combat, guise, hand, hand-to-hand combat, hand-to-hand fight, handiwork, handling, high old time, high time, house-to-house combat, improvisation, incident, influence, initiative, innards, job, judicial process, jury-rig, jury-rigged expedient, last expedient, last resort, last shift, laughs, lawsuit, legal action, legal case, legal proceedings, legal process, legal remedy, line, litigation, liveliness, local color, logistics, lovely time, machinery, maintien, makeshift, management, maneuver, maneuvers, manipulation, manner, manners, means, measure, mechanism, method, methodology, methods, mien, militancy, military operations, minor operations, mission, modus vivendi, mood, motif, motions, move, movements, moves, mythos, naval combat, observable behavior, occupation, operancy, operation, operations, order, overseas operations, overt act, passage, passage of arms, pattern, performing, peripeteia, picnic, pis aller, pitched battle, plan, pleasant time, plot, poise, political activism, port, pose, posture, power, power train, practice, praxis, precedent, presence, procedure, proceeding, proceedings, process, production, prognosis, pronouncement, prosecution, quarrel, reaction, recognition, remedy, res gestae, resolution, resort, resource, responsibility, rising action, robot control, ruling, rumble, running, running fight, scheme, scramble, scrimmage, scuffle, secondary plot, sentence, servo control, servomechanism, shake-up, shift, shoving match, skirmish, slant, social science, solution, sortie, spirit, sport, staff work, stand-up fight, steering, step, stir, stopgap, story, stratagem, street fight, strength, stroke, stroke of policy, structure, struggle, stunt, style, subject, subplot, suit, suit at law, supervisory control, switch, tactic, tactics, tauromachy, temporary expedient, thematic development, theme, thing, thing done, tone, topic, tour de force, transaction, trick, trump, tug-of-war, turn, tussle, twist, undertaking, verdict, vigor, vim, vitality, war game, war plans, watchworks, way, way of life, ways, wheels, wheels within wheels, work, working, working hypothesis, working proposition, workings, works